Lawn Sprinkler Nozzles
Lawn Sprinkler Nozzles are small fittings that attach to the end of a lawn sprinkler head to disperse the water output from the sprinkler head body evenly across the area that is being irrigated. Most irrigation nozzles offer a fixed spray pattern and will disperse water to a pre-determined distance. Sprinkler nozzles are typically labeled according to the distance of throw and their specific arc pattern. A Rain Bird 5Q for example will spray an approximate distance of 5 feet in a quarter circle pattern. The actual alignment of the nozzle spray can be adjusted by grasping the erect sprinkler head and turning the shaft to the appropriate direction of spray. The ratcheting action of most modern sprinkler head bodies allow this adjustment and will retain the direction of throw once completed.
Sprinkler head nozzles are also available in what is known as a Variable Arc Nozzle which allows the top of the nozzle to be adjusted from an infinate number of patterns. You should keep in mind though that Variable Arc Nozzles (VAN) will offer different flow rates than fixed pattern nozzles, and these flow rate differences should be taken into account in your irrigation system design.